Mexican border pharmacies in the US, drugstores are located in commercial zones found throughout the city, generally on corners of busy thoroughfares, thus providing customers optimal access to their services. Additionally, as metropolitan areas expand, one observes subsequent growth of commercial operations that coincide with the growth of the urban area.
Byits population grew by In El Paso, as elsewhere, Americans routinely cross the US-Mexico border to obtain a variety of goods and services, including medications. The US Customs and Border Protection Agency recognized these crossing points as the two busiest border crossings in the world in .
Since these two crossing accounted for most of the traffic during the study period, they served as the focus of this research. Mexican border pharmacies of particular health care providers including pharmacies has been studied for many years and has resulted in a myriad of research. Other studies have determined that distance and travel time are key factors to utilization . Most researchers agree that in order to use a facility, there must be access to it.
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Although access is difficult to pnarmacies and evaluate, Penchansky and Thomas identified five dimensions of access: mexican border pharmacies, accessibility, accommodation, affordability and mexican border pharmacies.
Availability describes the supply of services in relationship to the demand for them. Accessibility defines the borfer barriers to receiving such services pahrmacies as distance, transportation, and travel time to the facility.
Accommodation refers to the degree that services meet the needs of patients and include hours of service, waiting times, appointments and scheduling. Affordability denotes the cost of services and acceptability articulates how the provider interacts with the patient on a personal level.
Acceptability includes potential barriers such as mexican border pharmacies, ethnicity, language and sexual orientation . Each dimension can interfere with true access by creating barriers that limit utilization of services. Previous research pharmacoes US patients who cross into Mexico for prescription medications focused on the volume and cultural characteristics,  while others have mexican border pharmacies the dangers and legal issues associated with doing so .
Specifically, patient-based surveys were used to describe and identify why US residents cross into Mexico from Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas to buy prescription drugs and medications.
In addition, Homedes and Ugalde found that those who crossed to Mexico for health care faced a variety of challenges including administrative, legal and cultural barriers .
In spite of these difficulties there continues to be a considerable number of border crossings for medications. Although there are no exact figures on the number of Americans purchasing medications in Mexicaj, research suggests that it is significant. In October and November ofresearchers who conducted over telephone interviews and found that The hybrid nature of borderland populations pharmadies a factor .
Populations living along the border are at ease interacting with others from different cultures and are not apprehensive of other cultures and culture groups compared to people living away from the frontier [12,21]. The mexican border pharmacies reason for crossing the border for medications however is cost savings. Mapping and provider-based surveys were utilized to examine trends.
The file contained street and colonia similar to census tracts data however, street segments did not have any coordinate reference system included, and in addition it did not contain address ranges, which prevented geocoding operations. Although address matching mexiacn not possible, the street and colonia files were pharmscies into ArcMap for mapping purposes mexicaan. Streets, colonias and distances were accurate and were used to identify street names and define distances for manual placement of facilities.
A three-step process for manual placement of the facilities was performed. First, the street name of each facility was identified and located in the street file. A second query was performed to locate that section of street within a polygon, in this case, a colonia since this information was provided by the Yellow Page advertisement. The third step in the location process placed pharmacies in a particular order on the street and mexican border pharmacies the colonia as follows.
As a result, pharmacies were located on the correct street and in the correct colonia, however the exact location of each facility on phharmacies street itself could be slightly inaccurate because each was manually placed in ArcMap. This process proved to be a phadmacies method for locating pharmacies in those cases where address matching was unavailable.
Purchasing prescription medication in Mexico without a prescription. The experience at the border
Once the pharmacies were located and mapped, a cluster pattern was clearly visible. The same questionnaire was used in and and mexican border pharmacies possible, sites interviewed in were interviewed in The border zone one and one-half miles from the principal border crossingsitself, saw an increase of 90 new pharmacies, accounting for The distance between the two main border crossing points is approximately two miles, and with the border zone of one and one-half miles from each crossing point, the border zone has an area of approximately 7.
The dramatic increase in the number of pharmacies in the border zone is further illustrated in Figures 1 and 2 and again indicates that US customers mexican border pharmacies the reason for these new facilities being built within one and one-half miles of the two principal border crossings see Figures 1 and 2.
As shown in Figure 1in facilities are closely clustered near the US border crossing points in the northern part of the city. The remainder of the city has a much sparser distribution. Mexican border pharmacies pharmacies are found in other parts of the city, a clustering and concentration is in the north—near the two US border crossing points.
This was the case in and remains so in The map in Figure 2 de. Table 1. Number of pharmacies Number of interviews conducted shown in parentheses. Figure 1. Distribution of pharmacies, As the inset maps show, in both years the facilities tended to be located near the border crossing points and along the main streets leading from those entry points, and close to their clients.
Figure 2. The demand generated by US residents is significant. In other words, the further these facilities are from the border, and US base El Pasothe fewer customers are from the US. Table 2. Percentage of pharmacy clients from US by zone.
This study examined two mexican border pharmacies. See more is the first study to examine the risks and benefits of Mexican border pharmacies and the training and substantial role played by the clerks in these pharmacies.
Pharmacy clients might be spending their meager resources to treat symptoms; for example, some bought medicines for fatigue or weight loss, most probably without ruling out underlying health problems, and delaying necessary treatment.
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Patients also purchased medicines bordeg could hinder recovery e. The availability of walk-in clinics-where physicians diagnose and prescribe for a minimal fee-is very attractive to patients, including United States residents who are either uninsured, cannot mexican border pharmacies medical care in a timely manner, or cannot afford co-payments. It is also common for pharmacies to contract or employ physicians to prescribe and refer the patient to the pharmacy.
In some instances, the physician's compensation is based on the number of prescriptions, a situation that creates a conflict of interest and might lead to the prescription of unneeded medicines The Mexican government's decision August to enforce the legislation requiring mexican border pharmacies prescription to purchase antibiotics may have decreased the number of OTC sales of antibiotics.
The potentially biased information offered by the drug industry and distributors and compensating pharmacy clerks based on mfxican also may cause overmedication.
The sale of unneeded medicines coupled with prescription drugs online absence of pharmacists, the presence of untrained clerks, the observed tendency borver Mexican physicians to write few instructions mexican border pharmacies their prescriptions, and the limited information contained in the package inserts of prescription-only medicines, translate into clients having access to medications, but receiving very little or incorrect information on how to use them.
This study has documented that, contrary to people's perception, medicines are not always cheapest in Mexico, therefore United States-Mexico border crossers might want to compare prices before buying.
They also might want to seek advice from pharmacists in the United States, an issue that was not addressed in this study and deserves to be explored. The study limitations are the use of a convenience sample, the fact that two pharmacy chains refused to participate, and its relatively small sample size.
While the findings cannot be extrapolated to all Mexican pharmacies, the study has unveiled regulatory voids and pervasive organizational practices that are not exclusive to the pharmacies studied, ones that impact the type of products purchased and how medication is used. Borrer, the observers of client-clerk interactions could not always capture the name of the product under discussion, which limited analysis of the dispensation mexivan.
As long as there is no universal access to medical care, United States border residents brder continue to use Mexican pharmacies as their last resort. We would like to suggest some measures that could reduce the risks pharmcaies improve pharmaceis use of pharmaceuticals in the border area. It would mexican border pharmacies advisable to limit the conflicts of interest built into financial compensation offered to pharmacy clerks and physicians working in close collaboration with pharmacy chains.
These financial incentives lead physicians to over-prescribe and pharmacy clerks to increase the sale of selected products, mexian do not contribute to promoting the appropriate use of pharmaceuticals.
Purchasing prescription medication in Mexico without a prescription. The experience at the border
Pharmacies could distribute informational leaflets with all pharmaceutical products, but especially in prescription-only products that are currently sold with very limited accompanying information. These leaflets should be designed by communication specialists and the information should be provided by experts not under the payroll of the pharmaceutical industry.
United States clinics and others serving the poor and uninsured might remind those in need about the availability of some low-priced, generic medicines in United States pharmacies.
Given the dearth of QFBs trained in community pharmacy 25consideration should be given to the development of a technical degree, such as the pharmacy technician degree implemented in Cuba Given the importance of Mexican pharmacies for United States residents, the United States border leaders may consider collaborating with Mexican health authorities in the development of joint programs to promote the adequate use of pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics; in training mexican border pharmacies technicians; and in the development of educational materials to be distributed in pharmacies.
Finally, policymakers and professional associations may need to take decisive steps denouncing practices that put the health of pharmacy clients at risk. Successful implementation of these solutions will require a concerted effort by https://canadianpharmacyfirst.com/2-online-pharmacy-canada-geza.php, i.
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Cross-border utilization of health care services by United States residents living near the Mexican border.OBJECTIVE: To determine the benefits and risks of using Mexican pharmacies by better understanding the sociodemographics and medication needs of pharmacy. US customers started deluging Mexican border pharmacies after Texas passed an anti-abortion law last fall. A two-pill combination costs.
Purchasing prescription medication in Mexico without a prescription. The experience at the border. Western J Medicine. Cross-border purchase of medications and health care in a sample of residents of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.
J Natl Med Assoc. Persistent disparities in the use of health care along the US-Mexico border: an ecological perspective. Am J Public Health. Homedes N. The health seeking behavior of undocumented immigrants in El Paso County. In: Homedes N, Ugalde A, eds. Buenos Aires: Editorial Lugar; Quiroz T. World Health Organization. World health statistics. Manuscript received on 17 February Revised version accepted for publication on 29 November The study had three components: I.
Several studies of United States border cities show that 20%–30% of the residents receive health care services in Mexico. (12–16), and an even higher percentage. Mexican pharmacies require a current doctor's prescription only for controlled substances and antibiotics (as of August ); all other prescriptions can be.